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γ1- and γ2-melanocyte stimulating hormones induce central anxiogenic effects and potentiate ethanol withdrawal responses in the elevated plus-maze test in mice
Little is known about the endogenous functions of γ1- and γ2-melanocyte stimulating hormones (γ1- and γ2-MSH). Although γ-MSHs bind to melanocortin receptor subtypes 3 and 4, we have previously shown that these peptides ...
Carnitine congener mildronate protects against stress- and haloperidol-induced impairment in memory and brain protein expression in rats
The present study investigates the efficacy of mildronate, a carnitine congener, to protect stress and haloperidol-induced impairment of memory in rats and the expression of brain protein biomarkers involved in synaptic ...